influenza A H9N2/Turkey/Wisconsin virus
Avian influenza is caused by Type A influenza virus. The symptoms can
vary from a mild disease with little or no mortality to a highly fatal,
rapidly spreading epidemic (highly pathogenic avian influenza) depending
on the infecting virus strain, host factors, and environmental stressors.
Signs including coughing, sneezing, ruffled feathers, swollen heads,
nervous signs like depression, and diarrhea may occur together or singly.
In some cases, birds die rapidly without clinical signs of disease.
A highly infectious, febrile disease of dogs and other carnivores. Infected
dogs develop a rise of temperature, anorexia, catarrh, conjunctivitis,
and depression. Some dogs demonstrate primary respiratory signs while
others intestinal signs. The mortality rate ranges between 30-80%, but
surviving dogs often have permanent central nervous system sequelae.
Feline calicivirus is the synonym. Produces a respiratory disease, conjunctivitis and vesiculation of the mouth of cats.
Simplex Type 1
Causes skin lesions above the waist, encephalitis, stomatitis, eye infections
and fever blisters.
Simplex Type 2
Causes lesions on penis, urethra, vulva, vagina and skin of buttocks.
Causes severe damage to the human body's immune system defenses against
disease often leading to death. For example the AIDS virus infects white
blood cells and T-helper cells that play key roles in the body's immune
bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis is caused by Bovine Herpes Virus 1,
which is also responsible for the disease syndrome known as infectious
pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis (IPV-IPB). It appears that
the latter (IPV) was the primary form of the disease until the animals
were concentrated into high population units such as beef feedlots and
large dairy herds. The virus is associated with
respiratory tract infections (IBR) and bovine respiratory disease,
disorders including IPV, abortion and neonatal death.
Influenza Virus, Type A
Virus that causes the flu. An acute respiratory disease that occurs in epidemic form. Transmitted from person to person via aerosol route (coughing and sneezing).
Newcastle Disease Virus is by far one of the most important pathogens
of all birds. The symptoms of Newcastle Disease include respiratory
distress, diarrhea, cessation of egg, continued economic loss from reduced
rate of gain, poor feed conversion, increased mortality and carcass
condemnation at processing.
Norwalk virus was first identified in 1972 after an outbreak of gastrointestinal
illness in an elementary school in Norwalk, Ohio, in 1968. Later, other
viruses with similar features were described and called Norwalk-like
viruses. These have since been classified as members of the Calicivirus
contract Norwalk virus (NV) by swallowing food or water that has been
contaminated with the stool from an infected person. Outbreaks are often
linked to eating raw shellfish, especially oysters and clams. Shellfish
become contaminated via stool from sick food handlers or from raw sewage
dumped overboard by recreational and/or commercial boaters.
signs and symptoms of Norwalk virus include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
and stomach cramps. Severe illness or hospitalization is uncommon. Infected
persons usually recover in two or three days without any health side
effects. No specific treatment is available. Persons who are severely
dehydrated may need rehydration therapy.
respiratory and reproductive virus (PRRSv)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome affects pigs of all ages,
causes severe economic loss in many swine herds, and continues to be
a major problem for pork producers. Clinical signs may include anorexia,
fever, and lethargy in sows or gilts for one to seven days. Reproductive
failure is characterized by late-term abortions, increased numbers of
stillborn fetuses, and/or premature weak pigs.
Porcine rotaviruses are important causative agents of diarrhea in swine
herds worldwide. The virus infects neonates between the first and the
second week of age, affecting the productivity of the herd, which is
reflected in the economic losses associated with growth retardation,
the cost involved in veterinary treatment and in some cases, the death
of the animal.
A herpes virus that is extremely contagious from animal to animal. It
is contagious to several species of animals, including cattle, horses,
dogs, cats, sheep and goats. It produces rapid death (usually in 24
- 72 hours), most commonly from convulsions and seizures, in most all
species except swine, which are the normal target species of the virus.
Once a swine is infected with the virus, it will remain infected for
the life of the animal, although it may not show clinical signs.
Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGEV) is a highly contagious swine disease
that produces diarrhea, anorexia, vomiting and agalactia. High mortality,
decreasing mortality with age. Occurs most commonly in the winter.
The Vaccinia virus was used as an immunizing agent against human smallpox
during the global eradication program that sought to vaccinate the population.
Causes red hemorrhagic lesions (pocks) on cattle; usually confined to
the udder and teats.
A small, motile, aerobic Gram-negative bacillus bacterium that causes
tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in animals. Cats, and in particular
kittens, are most prone to B. bronchiseptica. Mortality is 100% in very
young kittens and close to 50% in older kittens.
Common cause of diarrheal illness mostly carried by birds and transferred
in under cooked meat.
Formally called Brevibacterium ammoniagenes, cause of diaper rash, converts
urine to ammonia.
Enterobacter aerogenes and cloacae
Can cause bacteremia, urinary tract infection, post-surgial wound infection and other nosocomial infections. Occurs in water, sewage, soil, dairy products, feces of man and animals. Most strains are resistant to ampicillin.
faecalis (Vancomycin resistant)
E. faecium is a member of the normal gut flora of most warm-blooded
animals, including humans. It can cause a wide range of infections,
often most seriously in hospital patients (ICU). Many enterococci are
resistant to a number of antibiotics - in fact some could only be treated
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci now represent more than 15% of nosocomial
A nosocomial infection that causes urinary tract infections, terminal septicemia, "travelers diarrhea" and infant diarrhea.
Generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria are an essential, but normally
harmless, component of the digestive tract of healthy animals and humans.
E. coli 0157:H7, or pathogenic E. coli, is typically found in raw or
undercooked ground beef. It has also been linked to infections involving
vegetables, unpasteurized apple cider, raw milk, salami, alfalfa sprouts
and drinking water. Upon inspection, E. coli 0157:H7 can cause hemorrhagic
colitis, which is characterized by initial abdominal pain and cramping,
usually followed by bloody diarrhea. Those most susceptible to severe
illness include the elderly, the young and those with compromised immune
Causes infection of the urinary and respiratory tracts. Causative agent
There are seven species of Listeria, with Listeria monocytogenes being
the species of public health concern. Listeria monocytogenes has been
detected in various areas of the environment, including the soil, ditches,
surface water of canals, lakes and sewage. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes
in the environment in food-processing plants is often found in areas
where high humidity and nutrients are present (factors that are favorable
to growth) such as floor drains, floors, food-processing equipment and
in and around coolers.
food products have been associated with Listeria monocytogenes contamination,
including raw milk and cheeses; fresh vegetables such as cucumbers,
potatoes and radishes; ready-to-eat meat products such as beef, ham
and sausage; and raw and ready-to-eat seafood and fish products. Animal
carcasses are also very often associated with Listeria monocytogenes
contamination. Listeria also has the ability to survive and grow in
with Listeria (called listeriosis) is characterized by a variety of
severe symptoms and often leads to meningitis and meninigoencephalitis.
In pregnant women in their third trimester, the consequences for the
fetus include spontaneous abortion, fetal death and meningitis, while
the mother may be asymptomatic or exhibit flu-like symptoms.
Has ability to survive and multiply in fluids, water and moist environments
found in hospitals. Hospital acquired infections usually occur to patients
having prior instrumentation or manipulative procedures such as urethral
catheterization, tracheotomies and intravenous infusions of medications
and fluids. The most important human sources are infected wounds, urine
and lesions producing exudates. Causes infant diarrhea, ocular infections,
burn infections, cystic fibrosis, folliculitis, osteomy elitis and malignant
Causes gastroenteritis, septicemia, bacteremia and arthritis. Salmonellae
are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the Untied States.
Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by this bacterium.
Salmonella typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry
the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract.
are opportunistic Gram-negative bacteria that are found in soil, water,
on plants and in animals. It has been implicated in many nosocomial
(hospital-acquired) infections involving the urinary tract infections,
wound infections, meningitis and pneumonia.
Symptoms include diarrhea which may be mild or severe, along with fever
and nausea. The diarrhea may be watery or bloody. Vomiting and abdominal
cramping may also occur.
In general, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, and S. boydii account for most
isolates in developing countries. Conversely, S. sonnei is most common
and S. dysenteriae is least common in developed countries.
Causes bacillary dysentery characterized by severe cramping abdominal
pain and diarrhea with blood and mucous.
Causes skin infections such as cellulites, boils, carbuncles, impetigo
and postoperative wound infections. Can cause food poisoning. Both community
and hospital infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis,
pneumonia and osteomyelitis.
aureus (Methicillin resistant)
Staph is found in the nose of 20-40% of normal healthy people and also
on the skin without causing problems. If it gets in through broken skin
can cause boils, wound and other infections. Staph can multiply on food-releasing
toxins that cause vomiting and diarrhea. Shows resistance to the antibiotic
Causes bacteremia, infective endocarditis, peritonitis associated with dialysis and predominantly genitourinary tract infections.
pyogenes is a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming bacteria
that is one of the most frequent pathogens in humans (harbored in the
respiratory tract of 5 15% of population). It is the leading
cause of strep throat, which if untreated can cause rheumatic
fever affecting the heart and kidneys in potentially life threatening
ways. Also know as the flesh eating bacteria